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Bylaws


A California Public Benefit Corporation

ARTICLE 1 OFFICES
SECTION 1. PRINCIPAL OFFICE

The principal office of the corporation for the transaction of its business is located in Lane County, Oregon.


SECTION 2. CHANGE OF ADDRESS

The county of the corporation’s principal office can be changed only by amendment of these Bylaws and not otherwise. The Board of Directors may, however, change the principal office from one location to another within the named county by noting the changed address and effective date below, and such changes of address shall not be deemed an amendment of these Bylaws:


_________________________________ Dated: ________
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SECTION 3. OTHER OFFICES

The corporation may also have offices at such other places, within or without the State of California, where it is qualified to do business, as its business may require and as the board of directors may, from time to time, designate.


ARTICLE 2. PURPOSES

SECTION 1. OBJECTIVE AND PURPOSE

The primary objective and purpose of this corporation shall be: to promote the application of fire ecology through science and education.


ARTICLE 3. DIRECTORS

SECTION 1. NUMBER

The corporation shall have not less than six (6) nor more than sixteen (16) directors, with the exact number to be fixed within these limits by approval of the Board of Directors or the members, if any, in the manner provided in these Bylaws. Collectively they shall be known as the Board of Directors. The number may be changed by amendment of this Bylaw, or by repeal of this Bylaw and adoption of a new Bylaw, as provided in these Bylaws.


SECTION 2. POWERS

Subject to the provisions of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation law and any limitations in the Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws relating to action required or permitted to be taken or approved by the members, if any, of this corporation, the activities and affairs of this corporation shall be conducted and all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the Board of Directors.


SECTION 3. DUTIES

It shall be the duty of the directors to:

  1. Perform any and all duties imposed on them collectively or individually by law, by the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by these Bylaws;
  2. Appoint and remove, employ and discharge, and, except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws, prescribe the duties and fix the compensation, if any, of all officers, agents and employees of the corporation;
  3. Supervise all officers, agents and employees of the corporation to assure that their duties are performed properly;
  4. Meet at such times and places as required by these Bylaws;
  5. Register their addresses with the Secretary/Treasurer of the corporation and notices of meetings mailed or submitted electronically to them at such addresses shall be valid notices thereof.
SECTION 4. TERMS OF OFFICE

Initially, Directors will be elected in three groups. The first group shall serve one year, the second group shall serve two years, and the third group shall serve three years. Thereafter, one-third of the board will be elected each year for a threeyear term. Elections will be held at the annual meeting.


SECTION 5. COMPENSATION

Directors may serve without compensation. In addition, they may be allowed reasonable advancement or reimbursement of expenses incurred in the performance of their regular duties as specified in Section 3 of this Article. Directors may not be compensated for rendering services to the corporation in any capacity other than director unless such other compensation is reasonable and is allowable under the provisions of Section 6 of this Article.


SECTION 6. RESTRICTION REGARDING INTERESTED DIRECTORS

Notwithstanding any other provision of these Bylaws, not more than forty-nine percent (49%) of the persons serving on the board may beinterested persons. For purposes of this Section, “interested persons” means either:

  1. Any person currently being compensated by the corporation for services rendered it within the previous twelve (12) months, whether as a full- or part-time officer or other employee, independent contractor, or otherwise, excluding any reasonable compensation paid to a director as director; or
  2. Any brother, sister, ancestor, descendant, spouse, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, mother-in-law, or father-in-law of any such person.
SECTION 7. PLACE OF MEETINGS

Meetings shall be held at the principal office of the corporation unless otherwise provided by the board or at such place within or without the State of California which has been designated from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors.


In the absence of such designation, any meeting not held at the principal office of the corporation shall be valid only if held on the written consent of all directors given either before or after the meeting and filed with the Secretary/Treasurer of the corporation or after all board members have been given written notice of the meeting as hereinafter provided for special meetings of the board.


Any meeting, regular or special, may be held by conference telephone, electronic video screen communication, or other communications equipment. Participation in a meeting through use of conference telephone constitutes presence in person at that meeting so long as all directors participating in the meeting are able to hear one another. Participation in a meeting through use of electronic video screen communication or other communications equipment (other than conference telephone) constitutes presence in person at that meeting if all of the following apply:

  1. Each director participating in the meeting can communicate with all of the other directors concurrently;
  2. Each director is provide the means of participating in all matters before the board, including, without limitation, the capacity to propose, or to interpose an objection to, a specific action to be taken by the corporation;
  3. The corporation adopts and implements some means of verifying 1) that all persons participating in the meeting are directors of the corporation or are otherwise entitled to participate in the meeting, and 2) that all actions of, or votes by, the board are taken and cast only by directors and not by persons who are not directors.
SECTION 8. REGULAR AND ANNUAL MEETINGS

Regular meetings of Directors shall be held annually during the last week of November. At the annual meeting, directors shall be elected by the Board of Directors in accordance with this section. Cumulative voting by directors for the election of directors shall not be permitted. The candidates receiving the highest number of votes up to the number of directors to be elected shall be elected.  To be elected, a nominee must receive more than 50% of the votes cast for them. Each director shall cast one vote per nominee as either Yes, No, or Abstain, with voting being by ballot only (updated 12-1-13).


SECTION 9. SPECIAL MEETINGS

Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairperson of the board, the President, the Vice President, the Secretary/Treasurer, or by any two directors, and such meetings shall be held at the place, within or without the State of California, designated by the person or persons calling the meeting, and in the absence of such designation, at the principal office of the corporation.


SECTION 10. NOTICE OF MEETINGS

Regular meetings of the board may be held without notice. Special meetings of the board shall be held upon four (4) days’ notice by first-class mail or forty-eight (48) hours’ notice delivered personally or by telephone or electronic mail.


If sent by surface mail or electronically, the notice shall be deemed to be delivered on its deposit in the mails or on its delivery to the recipient’s electronic mailbox. Such notices shall be addressed to each director at his or her address as shown on the books of the corporation.

Notice of the time and place of holding an adjourned meeting need not be given to absent directors if the time and place of the adjourned meeting are fixed at the meeting adjourned and if such adjourned meeting is held no more than twenty-four (24) hours from the time of the original meeting.


Notice shall be given of any adjourned regular or special meeting to directors absent from the original meeting if the adjourned meeting is held more than twenty-four (24) hours from the time of the original meeting.


SECTION 11. CONTENTS OF NOTICE

Notice of meetings not herein dispensed with shall specify the place, day and hour of the meeting. The purpose of any board meeting need not be specified in the notice.


SECTION 12. WAIVER OF NOTICE AND CONSENT TO HOLDING MEETINGS

The transactions of any meeting of the board, however called and noticed or wherever held, are as valid as though the meeting had been duly held after proper call and notice, provided a quorum, as hereinafter defined, is present and provided that either before or after the meeting each director not present signs a waiver of notice, a consent to holding the meeting, or an approval of the minutes thereof.


All such waivers, consents, or approvals shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting.


SECTION 13. QUORUM FOR MEETINGS

A quorum shall consist of a equal to or greater than 50% of the Board of Directors (Amended 7/27/11).  Except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws or in the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by law, no business shall be considered by the board at any meeting at which a quorum, as hereinafter defined, is not present, and the only motion which the Chair shall entertain at such meeting is a motion to adjourn.


However, a majority of the directors present at such meeting may adjourn from time to time until the time fixed for the next regular meeting of the board. When a meeting is adjourned for lack of a quorum, it shall not be necessary to give any notice of the time and place of the adjourned meeting or of the business to be transacted at such meeting, other than by announcement at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken, except as provided in Section 10 of this Article.

The directors present at a duly called and held meeting at which a quorum is initially present may continue to do business notwithstanding the loss of a quorum at the meeting due to a withdrawal of directors from the meeting, provided that any action thereafter taken must be approved by at least a majority of the required quorum for such meeting or such greater percentage as may be required by law, or the Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws of this corporation.


SECTION 14. MAJORITY ACTION AS BOARD ACTION

Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the directors present at a meeting duly held at which a quorum is present is the act of the Board of Directors, unless the Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws of this corporation, or provisions of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law, particularly those provisions relating to appointment of committees (Section 5212), approval of contracts or transactions in which a director has a material financial interest (Section 5233) and indemnification of directors (Section 5238e), require a greater percentage or different voting rules for approval of a matter by the board.


SECTION 15. CONDUCT OF MEETINGS

Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the Chairperson of the Board, or, if no such person has been so designated or, in his or her absence, the President of the corporation or, in his or her absence, by the Vice President of the corporation or, in the absence of each of these persons, by a Chairperson chosen by a majority of the directors present at the meeting.


The Secretary/Treasurer of the corporation shall take minutes of all meetings of the Board, provided that, in his or her absence, the presiding officer shall appoint another person to take minutes of the Meeting. Meetings shall be governed by Robert’s Rules, as such rules may be revised from time to time, insofar as such rules are not inconsistent with or in conflict with these Bylaws, with the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or with provisions of law.


SECTION 16. ACTION BY UNANIMOUS WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT MEETING

Any action required or permitted to be taken by the Board of Directors under any provision of law may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the board shall individually or collectively consent in writing to such action. For the purposes of this Section only, “all members of the board” shall not include any “interested director” as defined in Section 5233 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.


Such written consent or consents shall be filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the board. Such action by written consent shall have the same force and effect as the unanimous vote of the directors. Any certificate or other document filed under any provision of law which relates to action so taken shall state that the action was taken by unanimous written consent of the Board of Directors without a meeting and that the Bylaws of this corporation authorize the directors to so act, and such statement shall be prima facie evidence of such authority.


SECTION 17. VACANCIES

Vacancies on the Board of Directors shall exist (1) on the death, resignation or removal of any director, and (2) whenever the number of authorized directors is increased. The Board of Directors may declare vacant the office of a director who has been declared of unsound mind by a final order of court, or convicted of a felony, or been found by a final order or judgment of any court to have breached any duty under Section 5230 and following of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.


Directors may be removed without cause by a majority of the directors then in office. Any director may resign effective upon giving written notice to the Chairperson of the Board, the President, the Secretary/Treasurer, or the Board of Directors, unless the notice specifies a later time for the effectiveness of such resignation. No director may resign if the corporation would then be left without a duly elected director or directors in charge of its affairs, except upon notice to the Attorney General.


Vacancies on the board may be filled by approval of the board or, if the number of directors then in office is less than a quorum, by (1) the unanimous written consent of the directors then in office, (2) the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office at a meeting held pursuant to notice or waivers of notice complying with this Article of these Bylaws, or (3) a sole remaining director.


A person elected to fill a vacancy as provided by this Section shall hold office until the next annual election of the Board of Directors or until his or her death, resignation or removal from office.


SECTION 18. NON-LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS

The directors shall not be personally liable for the debts, liabilities, or other obligations of the corporation.


SECTION 19. INDEMNIFICATION BY CORPORATION OF DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES AND OTHER AGENTS

To the extent that a person who is, or was, a director, officer, employee or other agent of this corporation has been successful on the merits in defense of any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative proceeding brought to procure a judgment against such person by reason of the fact that he or she is, or was, an agent of the corporation, or has been successful in defense of any claim, issue or matter, therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such proceeding.


If such person either settles any such claim or sustains a judgment against him or her, then indemnification against expenses, judgments, fines, settlements and other amounts reasonably incurred in connection with such proceedings shall be provided by this corporation but only to the extent allowed by, and in accordance with the requirements of, Section 5238 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.


SECTION 20. INSURANCE FOR CORPORATE AGENTS

The Board of Directors may adopt a resolution authorizing the purchase and maintenance of insurance on behalf of any agent of the corporation (including a director, officer, employee or other agent of the corporation) against any liability other than for violating provisions of law relating to self-dealing (Section 5233 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law) asserted against or incurred by the agent in such capacity or arising out of the agent’s status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify the agent against such liability under the provisions of Section 5238 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.


ARTICLE 4 undefined OFFICERS

SECTION 1. NUMBER OF OFFICERS

The officers of the corporation shall be a President, Vice President and a Chief Financial Officer who shall be designated the Secretary/Treasurer. The corporation may also have, as determined by the Board of Directors, a Chairperson of the Board, additional Vice Presidents, Assistant Secretaries, Assistant Treasurers, or other officers. Any number of offices may be held by the same person except that the Secretary/Treasurer may not serve as the President or Chairperson of the Board.


SECTION 2. QUALIFICATION, ELECTION, AND TERM OF OFFICE

Any board member may serve as officer of this corporation. Officers shall be elected by the Board of Directors annually, and each officer shall hold office for one year, or until he or she resigns or is removed or is otherwise disqualified to serve, or until his or her successor shall be elected and qualified, whichever occurs first. No officer can serve more than three consecutive one-year terms.


SECTION 3. SUBORDINATE OFFICERS

The Board of Directors may appoint such other officers or agents as it may deem desirable, and such officers shall serve such terms, have such authority, and perform such duties as may be prescribed from time to time by the Board of Directors.


SECTION 4. REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION

Any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by the Board of Directors, at any time. Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Board of Directors or to the President or Secretary/Treasurer of the corporation.


Any such resignation shall take effect at the date of receipt of such notice or at any later date specified therein, and, unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. The above provisions of this Section shall be superseded by any conflicting terms of a contract which has been approved or ratified by the Board of Directors relating to the employment of any officer of the corporation.


SECTION 5. VACANCIES

Any vacancy caused by the death, resignation, removal, disqualification, or otherwise, of any officer shall be filled by the Board of Directors. In the event of a vacancy in any office other than that of President, such vacancy may be filled temporarily by appointment by the President until such time as the Board shall fill the vacancy. Vacancies occurring in offices of officers appointed at the discretion of the board may or may not be filled as the board shall determine.


SECTION 6. DUTIES OF PRESIDENT

The President shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, supervise and control the affairs of the corporation and the activities of the officers. He or she shall perform all duties incident to his or her office and such other duties as may be required by law, by the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by these Bylaws, or which may be prescribed from time to time by the Board of Directors.


Unless another person is specifically appointed as Chairperson of the Board of Directors, he or she shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors. If applicable, the President shall preside at all meetings of the members. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, by the Articles of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, he or she shall, in the name of the corporation, execute such deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts, checks, or other instruments which may from time to time be authorized by the Board of Directors.


SECTION 7. DUTIES OF VICE PRESIDENT

In the absence of the President, or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, the Vice President shall perform all the duties of the President, and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the restrictions on, the President. The Vice President shall have other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law, by the Articles of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, or as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors.


SECTION 8. DUTIES OF SECRETARY / TREASURER

The Secretary/Treasurer shall: Certify and keep at the principal office of the corporation the original, or a copy of these Bylaws as amended or otherwise altered to date. Keep at the principal office of the corporation or at such other place as the board may determine, a book of minutes of all meetings of the directors, and, if applicable, meetings of committees of directors and of members, recording therein the time and place of holding, whether regular or special, how called, how notice thereof was given, the names of those present or represented at the meeting, and the proceedings thereof. See that all notices are duly given in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws or as required by law. Be custodian of the records and of the seal of the corporation and see that the seal is affixed to all duly executed documents, the execution of which on behalf of the corporation under its seal is authorized by law or these Bylaws.


Keep at the principal office of the corporation a membership book containing the name and address of each and any members, and, in the case where any membership has been terminated, he or she shall record such fact in the membership book together with the date on which such membership ceased. Exhibit at all reasonable times to any director of the corporation, or to his or her agent or attorney, on request therefor, the Bylaws, the membership book, and the minutes of the proceedings of the directors of the corporation.


In general, perform all duties incident to the office of Secretary/Treasurer and such other duties as may be required by law, by the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by these Bylaws, or which may be assigned to him or her from time to time by the Board of Directors.

Subject to the provisions of these Bylaws relating to the “Execution of Instruments, Deposits and Funds,” the Secretary/Treasurer shall: Have charge and custody of, and be responsible for, all funds and securities of the corporation, and deposit all such funds in the name of the corporation in such banks, trust companies, or other depositories as shall be selected by the Board of Directors. Receive, and give receipt for, monies due and payable to the corporation from any source whatsoever.


Disburse, or cause to be disbursed, the funds of the corporation as may be directed by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements

Keep and maintain adequate and correct accounts of the corporation’s properties and business transactions, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains and losses.


Exhibit at all reasonable times the books of account and financial records to any director of the corporation, or to his or her agent or attorney, on request therefore.


Render to the President and directors, whenever requested, an account of any or all of his or her transactions as Secretary/Treasurer and of the financial condition of the corporation.


Prepare, or cause to be prepared, and certify, or cause to be certified, the financial statements to be included in any required reports.


In general, perform all duties incident to the office of Secretary/Treasurer and such other duties as may be required by law, by the Articles of Incorporation of the corporation, or by these Bylaws, or which may be assigned to him or her from time to time by the Board of Directors.


SECTION 9. COMPENSATION

The salaries of the officers, if any, shall be fixed from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors, and no officer shall be prevented from receiving such salary by reason of the fact that he or she is also a director of the corporation, provided, however, that such compensation paid a director for serving as an officer of this corporation shall only be allowed if permitted under the provisions of Article 3, Section 6 of these Bylaws. In all cases, any salaries received by officers of this corporation shall be reasonable and given in return for services actually rendered for the corporation which relate to the performance of the charitable or public purposes of this corporation.


ARTICLE 5 undefined COMMITTEES

SECTION 1. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

The Board of Directors may, by a majority vote of directors, designate two (2) or more of its members (who may also be serving as officers of this corporation) to constitute an Executive Committee and delegate to such Committee any of the powers and authority of the board in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, except with respect to:

  1. The approval of any action which, under law or the provisions of these Bylaws, requires the approval of the members or of a majority of all of the members.
  2. The filling of vacancies on the board or on any committee which has the authority of the board.
  3. The fixing of compensation of the directors for serving on the board or on any committee.
  4. The amendment or repeal of Bylaws or the adoption of new Bylaws.
  5. The amendment or repeal or any resolution of the board which by its express terms is not so amendable or repealable.
  6. The appointment of committees of the board or the members thereof.
  7. The expenditure of corporate funds to support a nominee for director after there are more people nominated for director than can be elected.
  8. The approval of any transaction to which this corporation is a party and in which one or more of the directors has a material financial interest, except as expressly provided in Section 5233(d)(3) of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.

By a majority vote of its members then in office, the board may at any time revoke or modify any or all of the authority so delegated, increase or decrease but not below two (2) the number of its members, and fill vacancies therein from the members of the board. The Committee shall keep regular minutes of its proceedings, cause them to be filed with the corporate records, and report the same to the board from time to time as the board may require.


SECTION 2. OTHER COMMITTEES

The corporation shall have such other committees as may from time to time be designated by resolution of the Board of Directors. Such other committees may consist of persons who are not also members of the board. These additional committees shall act in an advisory capacity only to the board and shall be clearly titled as “advisory” committees.


SECTION 3. MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES

Meetings and action of committees shall be governed by, noticed, held and taken in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws concerning meetings of the Board of Directors, with such changes in the context of such Bylaw provisions as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the Board of Directors and its members, except that the time for regular meetings of committees may be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors or by the committee.


The time for special meetings of committees may also be fixed by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may also adopt rules and regulations pertaining to the conduct of meetings of committees to the extent that such rules and regulations are not inconsistent with the provisions of these Bylaws.


ARTICLE 6 undefined EXECUTION OF INSTRUMENTS, DEPOSITS AND FUNDS
SECTION 1. EXECUTION OF INSTRUMENTS

The Board of Directors, except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws, may by resolution authorize any officer or agent of the corporation to enter into any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the corporation, and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized, no officer, agent, or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable monetarily for any purpose or in any amount.


SECTION 2. CHECKS AND NOTES

Except as otherwise specifically determined by resolution of the Board of Directors, or as otherwise required by law, checks, drafts, promissory notes, orders for the payment of money, and other evidence of indebtedness of the corporation shall be signed by the Secretary/Treasurer.


SECTION 3. DEPOSITS

All funds of the corporation shall be deposited from time to time to the credit of the corporation in such banks, trust companies, or other depositories as the Board of Directors may select.


SECTION 4. GIFTS

The Board of Directors may accept on behalf of the corporation any contribution, gift, bequest, or devise for the charitable or public purposes of this corporation.


ARTICLE 7 undefined CORPORATE RECORDS, REPORTS AND SEAL

SECTION 1. MAINTENANCE OF CORPORATE RECORDS

The corporation shall keep at its principal office in the State of California:

  1. Minutes of all meetings of directors, committees of the board and, if this corporation has members, of all meetings of members, indicating the time and place of holding such meetings, whether regular or special, how called, the notice given, and the names of those present and the proceedings thereof;
  2. Adequate and correct books and records of account, including accounts of its properties and business transactions and accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains and losses;
  3. A record of its members, if any, indicating their names and addresses and, if applicable, the class of membership held by each member and the termination date of any membership;
  4. A copy of the corporation’s Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws as amended to date, which shall be open to inspection by the members, if any, of the corporation at all reasonable times during office hours.
SECTION 2. CORPORATE SEAL

The Board of Directors may adopt, use, and at will alter, a corporate seal. Such seal shall be kept at the principal office of the corporation. Failure to affix the seal to corporate instruments, however, shall not affect the validity of any such instrument.


SECTION 3. DIRECTORS’ INSPECTION RIGHTS

Every director shall have the absolute right at any reasonable time to inspect and copy all books, records and documents of every kind and to inspect the physical properties of the corporation.


SECTION 4. MEMBERS’ INSPECTION RIGHTS

Every member shall have the following inspection rights, for a purpose reasonably related to such person’s interest as a member:

  1. To inspect and copy the record of all members’ names, addresses and voting rights, at reasonable times, upon five (5) business days’ prior written demand on the corporation, which demand shall state the purpose for which the inspection rights are requested.
  2. To obtain from the Secretary/Treasurer of the corporation, upon written demand and payment of a reasonable charge, an alphabetized list of the names, addresses and voting rights of those members entitled to vote for the election of directors as of the most recent record date for which the list has been compiled or as of the date specified by the member subsequent to the date of demand. The demand shall state the purpose for which the list is requested. The membership list shall be made available on or before the later of ten (10) business days after the demand is received or after the date specified therein as of which the list is to be compiled.
  3. To inspect at any reasonable time the books, records, or minutes of proceedings of the members or of the board or committees of the board, upon written demand on the corporation by the member, for a purpose reasonably related to such person’s interests as a member.
SECTION 5. RIGHT TO COPY AND MAKE EXTRACTS

Any inspection under the provisions of this Article may be made in person or by agent or attorney and the right to inspection includes the right to copy and make extracts.


SECTION 6. ANNUAL REPORT

The board shall cause an annual report to be furnished not later than one hundred and twenty (120) days after the close of the corporation’s fiscal year to all directors of the corporation and, if this corporation has members, to any member who requests it in writing, which report shall contain the following information in appropriate detail:

  1. The assets and liabilities, including the trust funds, of the corporation as of the end of the fiscal year;
  2. The principal changes in assets and liabilities, including trust funds, during the fiscal year;
  3. The revenue or receipts of the corporation , both unrestricted and restricted to particular purposes, for the fiscal year;
  4. The expenses or disbursements of the corporation, for both general and restricted purposes, during the fiscal year;
  5. Any information required by Section 7 of this Article.

The annual report shall be accompanied by any report thereon of independent accountants, or, if there is no such report, the certificate of an authorized officer of the corporation that such statements were prepared without audit from the books and records of the corporation.

If this corporation has members, then, if this corporation receives TWENTYFIVE THOUSAND DOLLARS ($25,000), or more, in gross revenues or receipts during the fiscal year, this corporation shall automatically send the above annual report to all members, in such manner, at such time, and with such contents, including an accompanying report from independent accountants or certification of a corporate officer, as specified by the above provisions of this Section relating to the annual report.


SECTION 7. ANNUAL STATEMENT OF SPECIFIC TRANSACTIONS TO MEMBERS

This corporation shall mail or deliver to all directors and any and all members a statement within one hundred and twenty (120) days after the close of its fiscal year which briefly describes the amount and circumstances of any indemnification or transaction of the following kind:

  1. Any transaction in which the corporation, or its parent or its subsidiary, was a party, and in which either of the following had a direct or indirect material financial interest:
    1. Any director or officer of the corporation, or its parent or subsidiary (a mere common directorship shall not be considered a material financial interest); or
    2. Any holder of more than ten percent (10%) of the voting power of the corporation, its parent or its subsidiary.

The above statement need only be provided with respect to a transaction during the previous fiscal year involving more than FIFTY THOUSAND DOLLARS ($50,000) or which was one of a number of transactions with the same persons involving, in the aggregate, more than FIFTY THOUSAND DOLLARS ($50,000). Similarly, the statement need only be provided with respect to indemnifications or advances aggregating more than TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS ($10,000) paid during the previous fiscal year to any director or officer, except that no such statement need be made if such indemnification was approved by the members pursuant to Section 5238(e)(2) of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.


Any statement required by this Section shall briefly describe the names of the interested persons involved in such transactions, stating each person’s relationship to the corporation, the nature of such person’s interest in the transaction and, where practical, the amount of such interest, provided that in the case of a transaction with a partnership of which such person is a partner, only the interest of the partnership need be stated.


All members shall be provided with an annual report according to the provisions of Section 6 of this Article, then such annual report shall include the information required by this Section.


ARTICLE 8 undefined FISCAL YEAR

SECTION 1. FISCAL YEAR OF THE CORPORATION

The fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the first day of January and end on the thirty-first day of December in each year.


ARTICLE 9 undefined AMENDMENT OF BYLAWS

SECTION 1. AMENDMENT

Subject to any provision of law applicable to the amendment of Bylaws of public benefit nonprofit corporations, these Bylaws, or any of them, may be altered, amended, or repealed and new Bylaws adopted as follows:

  1. Subject to the power of members to change or repeal these Bylaws under Section 5150 of the Corporations Code, by approval of the Board of Directors unless the Bylaw amendment would materially and adversely affect the rights of members as to voting or transfer, then a Bylaw specifying or changing the fixed number of directors of the corporation, the maximum or minimum number of directors, or changing from a fixed to variable board or vice versa, may not be adopted, amended, or repealed except as provided in subparagraph (b) of this Section; or
  2. By approval of the members of this corporation.

ARTICLE 10 undefined AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES

SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES BEFORE ADMISSION OF MEMBERS

Before any members have been admitted to the corporation, any amendment of the Articles of Incorporation may be adopted by approval of the Board of Directors.


SECTION 2. AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES AFTER ADMISSION OF MEMBERS

After members, if any, have been admitted to the corporation, amendment of the Articles of Incorporation may be adopted by the approval of the Board of Directors and by the approval of the members of this corporation.


SECTION 3. CERTAIN AMENDMENTS

Notwithstanding the above sections of this Article, this corporation shall not amend its Articles of Incorporation to alter any statement which appears in the original Articles of Incorporation of the names and addresses of the first directors of this corporation, nor the name and address of its initial agent, except to correct an error in such statement or to delete such statement after the corporation has filed a “Statement by a Domestic Non-Profit Corporation” pursuant to

Section 6210 of the California Nonprofit Corporation Law.


ARTICLE 11 – PROHIBITION AGAINST SHARING CORPORATE PROFITS AND ASSETS

SECTION 1. PROHIBITION AGAINST SHARING CORPORATE PROFITS AND ASSETS

No member, director, officer, employee, or other person connected with this corporation, or any private individual, shall receive at any time any of the net earnings or pecuniary profit from the operations of the corporation, provided, however, that this provision shall not prevent payment to any such person of reasonable compensation for services performed for the corporation in effecting any of its public or charitable purposes, provided that such compensation is otherwise permitted by these Bylaws and is fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors; and no such person or persons shall be entitled to share in the distribution of, and shall not receive, any of the corporate assets on dissolution of the corporation.


All members, if any, of the corporation shall be deemed to have expressly consented and agreed that on such dissolution or winding up of the affairs of the corporation, whether voluntarily or involuntarily, the assets of the corporation, after all debts have been satisfied, shall be distributed as required by the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation and not otherwise.


MEMBERSHIP PROVISIONS OF ASSOCIATION FOR FIRE ECOLOGY A CALIFORNIA PUBLIC BENEFIT CORPORATION

ARTICLE 12 undefined MEMBERS

SECTION 1. DETERMINATION AND RIGHTS OF MEMBERS

The corporation shall have only one class of members. No member shall hold more than one membership in the corporation. Except as expressly provided in or authorized by the Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws of this corporation, all memberships shall have the same rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions.


SECTION 2. QUALIFICATION OF MEMBERS

The qualification for membership in this corporation is an interest in fire ecology.


SECTION 3. ADMISSION OF MEMBERS

Applicants shall be admitted to membership on making application therefore in writing and upon payment of the first annual dues as specified in the following sections of this Bylaw.


SECTION 4. FEES, DUES AND ASSESSMENTS
  1. The annual dues payable to the corporation by members shall be in such amount as may be determined from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors.
  2. Memberships shall be nonassessable.
SECTION 5. NUMBER OF MEMBERS

There is no limit on the number of members the corporation may admit.


SECTION 6. MEMBERSHIP BOOK

The corporation shall keep a membership book containing the name and address of each member. Termination of the membership of any member shall be recorded in the book, together with the date of termination of such membership. Such book shall be kept at the corporation’s principal office and shall be available for inspection by any director or member of the corporation during regular business hours.


The record of names and addresses of the members of this corporation shall constitute the membership list of this corporation and shall not be used, in whole or part, by any person for any purpose not reasonably related to a member’s interest as a member.


SECTION 7. NONLIABILITY OF MEMBERS

A member of this corporation is not, as such, personally liable for the debts, liabilities, or obligations of the corporation.


SECTION 8. NONTRANSFERABILITY OF MEMBERSHIPS

No member may transfer a membership or any right arising therefrom. All rights of membership cease upon the member’s death.


SECTION 9. TERMINATION OF MEMBERSHIP
  1. Grounds for Termination. The membership of a member shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of the following events:
    1. Upon his or her notice of such termination delivered to the President or Secretary/Treasurer of the corporation personally or by mail, such membership to terminate upon the date of delivery of the notice or date of deposit in the mail.
    2. Upon a determination by the Board of Directors that the member has engaged in conduct materially and seriously prejudicial to the interests or purposes of the corporation.
    3. If this corporation has provided for the payment of dues by members, upon a failure to renew his or her annual membership by paying dues on or before their due date. A member may avoid such termination by paying the amount of delinquent dues within a thirty (30)-day period following the member’s annual renewal date.
  2. Procedure for Expulsion. Following the determination that a member should be expelled under subparagraph (a)(2) of this section, the following procedure shall be implemented:
    1. A notice shall be sent by first-class or registered mail to the last address of the member as shown on the corporation’s records, setting forth the expulsion and the reasons therefor. Such notice shall be sent at least fifteen (15) days before the proposed effective date of the expulsion.
    2. The member being expelled shall be given an opportunity to be heard, either orally or in writing, at a hearing to be held not less than five (5) days before the effective date of the proposed expulsion. The hearing will be held by the Board of Directors in accordance with the quorum and voting rules set forth in these Bylaws applicable to the meetings of the Board. The notice to the member of his or her proposed expulsion shall state the date, time, and place of the hearing on his or her proposed expulsion.
    3. Following the hearing, the Board of Directors shall decide whether or not the member should in fact be expelled, suspended, or sanctioned in some other way. The decision of the Board shall be final.
    4. If this corporation has provided for the payment of dues by members, any person expelled from the corporation shall receive a refund of dues already paid. The refund shall be pro-rated to return only the unaccrued balance remaining for the period of the dues payment.

SECTION 10. RIGHTS ON TERMINATION OF MEMBERSHIP

All rights of a member in the corporation shall cease on termination of membership as herein provided.


SECTION 11. AMENDMENTS RESULTING IN THE TERMINATION OF MEMBERSHIPS

Notwithstanding any other provision of these Bylaws, if any amendment of the Articles of Incorporation or of the Bylaws of this corporation would result in the termination of all memberships or any class of memberships, then such amendment or amendments shall be effected only in accordance with the provisions of Section 5342 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.


ARTICLE 13 undefined MEETINGS OF MEMBERS

SECTION 1. PLACE OF MEETINGS

Meetings of members shall be held at such place or places within or without the State of California as may be designated from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors.


SECTION 2. ANNUAL AND OTHER REGULAR MEETINGS

The members shall meet annually year at the annual Board of Directors meeting, for the purpose of transacting business as may come before the meeting.


SECTION 3. SPECIAL MEETINGS OF MEMBERS
  1. Persons Who May Call Special Meetings of Members. Special meetings of the members shall be called by the Board of Directors, the Chairperson of the Board, or the President of the corporation. In addition, special meetings of the members for any lawful purpose may be called by five percent (5%) or more of the members.
SECTION 4. NOTICE OF MEETINGS
  1. Time of Notice. Whenever members are required or permitted to take action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given by the Secretary/Treasurer of the corporation not less than ten (10) nor more than ninety (90) days before the date of the meeting to each member who, on the record date for the notice of the meeting, is entitled to vote thereat, provided, however, that if notice is given by mail, and the notice is not mailed by first-class, registered, or certified mail, that notice shall be given twenty (20) days before the meeting.
  2. Manner of Giving Notice. Notice of a members’ meeting or any report shall be given either personally or by mail or other means of written or electronic communication, addressed to the member at the address of such member appearing on the books of the corporation or given by the member to the corporation for the purpose of notice; or if no address appears or is given, at the place where the principal office of the corporation is located or by publication of notice of the meeting at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the principal office is located. Notice shall be deemed to have been given at the time when delivered personally or deposited in the mail or sent by telegram or other means of written communication.
SECTION 5. QUORUM FOR MEETINGS

A quorum shall consist of 10% of the voting members of the corporation. The members present at a duly called and held meeting at which a quorum is initially present may continue to do business notwithstanding the loss of a quorum at the meeting due to a withdrawal of members from the meeting provided that any action taken after the loss of a quorum must be approved by at least a majority of the members required to constitute a quorum.


In the absence of a quorum, any meeting of the members may be adjourned from time to time by the vote of a majority of the votes represented in person or by proxy at the meeting, but no other business shall be transacted at such meeting. When a meeting is adjourned for lack of a sufficient number of members at the meeting or otherwise, it shall not be necessary to give any notice of the time and place of the adjourned meeting or of the business to be transacted at such meeting other than by announcement at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken of the time and place of the adjourned meeting.


However, if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for notice or voting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each member who, on the record date for notice of the meeting, is entitled to vote at the meeting. A meeting shall not be adjourned for more than forty-five (45) days. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Article, if this corporation authorizes members to conduct a meeting with a quorum of less than one-third (1/3) of the voting power, then, if less than one-third (1/3) of the voting power actually attends a regular meeting, in person or by proxy, then no action may be taken on a matter unless the general nature of the matter was stated in the notice of the regular meeting.


SECTION 6. MAJORITY ACTION AS MEMBERSHIP ACTION

Every act or decision done or made by a majority of voting members present in person at a duly held meeting at which a quorum is present, is the act of the members, unless the law, the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or these Bylaws require a greater number.


SECTION 7. VOTING RIGHTS

Each member is entitled to one vote on each matter submitted to a vote by the members. Voting at duly held meetings shall be by voice vote. Election of Directors, however, shall be by ballot.


SECTION 8. PROXY VOTING

Members entitled to vote shall not be permitted to vote or act by proxy.


SECTION 9. CONDUCT OF MEETINGS

Meetings of members shall be presided over by the Chairperson of the Board, or, if there is no Chairperson, by the President of the corporation or, in his or her absence, by the Vice President of the corporation or, in the absence of all of these persons, by a Chairperson chosen by a majority of the voting members, present in person.


The Secretary/Treasurer of the corporation shall take minutes of all meetings of members, provided that, in his or her absence, the presiding officer shall appoint another person to take minutes of the Meeting.


Meetings shall be governed by Roberts’ Rules of Order, as such rules may be revised from time to time, insofar as such rules are not inconsistent with or in conflict with these Bylaws, with the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or with any provision of law.


SECTION 10. ACTION BY WRITTEN BALLOT WITHOUT A MEETING

Any action which may be taken at any regular or special meeting of members may be taken without a meeting if the corporation distributes a written ballot to each member entitled to vote on the matter. The ballot shall set forth the proposed action, provide an opportunity to specify approval or disapproval of each proposal, provide that where the person solicited specifies a choice with respect to any such proposal the vote shall be cast in accordance therewith, and provide a reasonable time within which to return the ballot to the corporation. Ballots shall be mailed or delivered in the manner required for giving notice of meetings specified in Section4(b) of this Article.


All written ballots shall also indicate the number of responses needed to meet the quorum requirement and, except for ballots soliciting votes for the election of directors, shall state the percentage of approvals necessary to pass the measure submitted. The ballots must specify the time by which they must be received by the corporation in order to be counted.

Approval of action by written ballot shall be valid only when the number of votes cast by ballot within the time period specified equals or exceeds the quorum required to be present at a meeting authorizing the action, and the number of approvals equals or exceeds the number of votes that would be required to approve the action at a meeting at which the total number of votes cast was the same as the number of votes cast by ballot.


Directors may be elected by written ballot. Such ballots for the election of directors shall list the persons nominated at the time the ballots are mailed or delivered. If any such ballots are marked “withhold” or otherwise marked in a manner indicating that the authority to vote for the election of directors is withheld, they shall not be counted as votes either for or against the election of a director. A written ballot may not be revoked after its receipt by the corporation or its deposit in the mail, whichever occurs first.


SECTION 11. RECORD DATE FOR MEETINGS

The record date for purposes of determining the members entitled to notice, voting rights, written ballot rights, or any other right with respect to a meeting of members or any other lawful membership action, shall be fixed pursuant to Section 5611 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.


ARTICLE 14. CONFLICT OF INTEREST POLICY

SECTION 1.PURPOSE

The purpose of the conflict-of-interest policy is to protect the tax-exempt interest of the Association for Fire Ecology’s (AFE) when it is contemplating entering into a transaction or arrangement that might benefit the private interest of an officer or director of the organization or might result in a possible excess benefit transaction. This policy is intended to supplement but not replace any applicable state and federal laws governing conflict of interest applicable to nonprofit and charitable organizations.


SECTION 2.DEFINITIONS

Interested Person – Any director, principal officer, or member of the board of directors, who has a direct or indirect financial interest, as defined below, is an interested person.

Financial Interest – A person has a financial interest if the person has, directly or indirectly, through business, investment, or family:

(a) An ownership or investment interest in any entity with which the AFE has a transaction or arrangement,

(b) A compensation arrangement with the AFE or with any entity or individual with which the AFE has a transaction or arrangement, or

(c) A potential ownership or investment interest in, or compensation arrangement with, any entity or individual with which the AFE is negotiating a transaction or arrangement. Compensation includes direct and indirect remuneration as well as gifts or favors that are not insubstantial.  A financial interest is not necessarily a conflict of interest. Under Article III, Section 2, a person who has a financial interest may have a conflict of interest only if the appropriate board of directors decides that a conflict of interest exists.


SECTION 2.PROCEDURES

(a) Duty To Disclose In connection with any actual or possible conflict of interest, an interested person must disclose the existence of the financial interest and be given the opportunity to disclose all material facts to the board of directors considering the proposed transaction or arrangement.

(b) Determining Whether a Conflict of Interest Exists After disclosure of the financial interest and all material facts, and after any discussion with the interested person, he or she shall leave the board of directors meeting while the determination of a conflict of interest is discussed and voted upon. The remaining board members shall decide if a conflict of interest exists.

(c) Procedures for Addressing the Conflict of Interest An interested person may make a presentation at the board of directors meeting, but after the presentation, he or she shall leave the meeting during the discussion of, and the vote on, the transaction or arrangement involving the possible conflict of interest.

1. The President of the board of directors shall, if appropriate, appoint a disinterested person or committee to investigate alternatives to the proposed transaction or arrangement.

2. After exercising due diligence, the board of directors shall determine whether the organization can obtain with reasonable efforts a more advantageous transaction or arrangement from a person or entity that would not give rise to a conflict of interest.

3. If a more advantageous transaction or arrangement is not reasonably possible under circumstances not producing a conflict of interest, the board of directors shall determine by a majority vote of the disinterested directors whether the transaction or arrangement is in the organization’s best interest, for its own benefit, and whether it is fair and reasonable. In conformity with the above determination, it shall make its decision as to whether to enter into the transaction or arrangement.

(d) Violations of the Conflicts-of-Interest Policy

1. If the board of directors has reasonable cause to believe a member has failed to disclose actual or possible conflicts of interest, it shall inform the member of the basis for such belief and afford the member an opportunity to explain the alleged failure to disclose.

2. If, after hearing the member’s response and after making further investigation as warranted by the circumstances, the board of directors determines the member has failed to disclose an actual or possible conflict of interest, it shall take appropriate disciplinary and corrective action.


SECTION 4.RECORDS OF PROCEEDINGS

The minutes of the board of directors shall contain:

a. The names of the persons who disclosed or otherwise were found to have a financial interest in connection with an actual or possible conflict of interest, the nature of the financial interest, any action taken to determine whether a conflict of interest was present, and the board of directors’ decision as to whether a conflict of interest in fact existed.

b. The names of the persons who were present for discussions and votes relating to the transaction or arrangement, the content of the discussion, including any alternatives to the proposed transaction or arrangement, and a record of any votes taken in connection with the proceedings.


SECTION 5.COMPENSATION

a. A voting member of the board of directors who receives compensation, directly or indirectly, from the organization for services is precluded from voting on matters pertaining to that member’s compensation.

b. A voting member of any committee whose jurisdiction includes compensation matters and who receives compensation, directly or indirectly, from the organization for services is precluded from voting on matters pertaining to that member’s compensation.

c. No voting member of the board of directors whose jurisdiction includes compensation matters and who receives compensation, directly or indirectly, from the organization, either individually or collectively, is prohibited from providing information to any committee regarding compensation.


SECTION 6.STATEMENTS

Each director, principal officer, and member the board of directors shall sign a statement that affirms such person:

a. Has received a copy of the conflict-of-interest policy,

b. Has read and understands the policy,

c. Has agreed to comply with the policy, and

d. Understands the organization is charitable and in order to maintain its federal tax exemption it must engage primarily in activities that accomplish one or more of its tax-exempt purposes.


SECTION 7.PERIODIC REVIEWS

To ensure the organization operates in a manner consistent with charitable purposes and does not engage in activities that could jeopardize its tax-exempt status, periodic reviews shall be conducted. The periodic reviews shall, at a minimum, include the following subjects:

a. Whether compensation arrangements and benefits are reasonable, based on competent survey information, and the result of arm’s-length bargaining

b. Whether partnerships, joint ventures, and arrangements with management organizations conform to the organization’s written policies, are properly recorded, reflect reasonable investment or payments for goods and services, further charitable purposes, and do not result in inurement, impermissible private benefit, or in an excess benefit transaction


SECTION 8.USE OF OUTSIDE EXPERTS

When conducting the periodic reviews as provided for in Article VII, the organization may, but need not, use outside advisors. If outside experts are used, their use shall not relieve the board of directors of its responsibility for ensuring periodic reviews are conducted.


Adopted by the Board of Directors of the Association for Fire Ecology on November 30, 2007. Brian Oswald, President AFE Board of Directors

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